One could be tempted to think India was the cradle of beauty (not only because of Bollywood): hair, eyes, skin, and posture seem nearly perfect. Some think the roots of plastic and esthetic surgery are to be found in this diverse Indian culture. Nose jobs (rhinoplasty) were performed as early as 2,000 B.C. In those days, people cut off the noses of criminals and prisoners of war to mark them and punish them. A tissue transplantation – with skin taken from the forehead – was the only way to cover the most gruesome wounds. The term Indian flap is still used by surgeons today to indicate this method of nasal reconstruction, says assistant professor Dr Dacho.
Plastic surgery, derived from the Greek word plattein (to form, to shape, to design), is a way to reshape or reconstruct parts of the body. It is a methodical discipline and thus not restricted to one particular body region. A common approach in plastic surgery is to take tissue or organ parts from other areas of the body and use them to restore the damaged body part. That is why a plastic surgeon needs to have knowledge of the entire human body.
The ancient Greek and Roman reconstructive techniques were passed on from generation to generation even though surgery was prohibited in the Middle Ages. The 14th century saw a renaissance of surgery in general. By the mid-1400s, the Italians took up the Indian methods of nasal reconstruction again. Back in those days, Italy was the leading nation when it came to arts and sciences. The book Chirurgia Curtorum Per Insitionem, which marked the beginning of plastic-reconstructive surgery in Europe, was published in 1597. Dr Dacho adds: „This book introduced the principles of nasal reconstruction using a paramedian forehead flap. Still, it reaped nothing but scorn and derision and was condemned by the church.“
Heyday since the 19th century
The modern era of plastic-reconstructive surgery began at the end of the 18th century. The tried and tested techniques of old had been preserved and were now being developed further. Carl von Gräfe, a professor from Berlin, published his book Rhinoplastik (Rhinoplasty) in 1818. In it, he described the Indian and Italian procedures and brought forward his own ideas, as Dr Dacho explains.
The wars of the early 20th century accelerated the advancement of modern plastic-reconstructive surgery. „The invention of microsurgical tools, better suture materials, and the introduction of the surgical microscope in 1921 marked important steps in the early developmental stages of micosurgery,“ says Dacho. „Reliable but time-consuming operation techniques that had been developed during the Great War became obsolete, and now they are history.“ In the 1960s, the developments in microsurgey led to fundamental changes and improvements of established procedures.
Even in the last 10 years, the field of plastic and esthetic surgery has made enormous progress. While plastic or reconstructive surgery is performed for medical reasons, esthetic surgery is done for cosmetic purposes. However, sometimes the lines are blurred.
Surgery today – modern, highly specialized, natural
The latest operation methods have made surgeries a lot safer. Overall, there are less risks, shorter regeneration periods, smaller scars, and almost no post-operative pain.
Plastic and esthetic surgeon Dr Dacho is a member of Leading Medicine Guide and based in Heidelberg, Germany. His private practice ATOS Klinik is located next to Bismarck Square, with Heidelberg Castle not far away.
The phyisician specializes in facial and neck surgery, covering functional, reconstructive, and esthetic rhinoplasty as well as the treatment of congenital malformations.
What has changed in the last decade? Mr Dacho provides insights into the field of facial surgery.
- Hooded eyelids and eye bags can be removed quickly and effectively
- Many people consider small lips or a gummy smile to be flaws. Special methods make natural looking corrections possible.
- Adjustements to the nose, the most prominent feature of the face, can be made without leaving serious scars. Simple procedures take as little as two hours.
- The face can not only be subjected to wrinkle treatment. Eyebrows can be lifted. Cheek bones and even your skin’s texture can be altered. A natural look is retained at all times.
- Medical needling and thread lifts can tighten your skin and make you look younger. These procedures can be applied to the face, the neck, and the cleavage
You are in good hands with Dr Dacho. He is one of only a few doctors in Germany who have completed residencies both in plastic / esthetic surgery and otorhinolaryngology. For more information, visit his profile page at Leading Medicine Guide.