Internal organs - Medical specialists

It is regarded as the true supreme discipline: Internal medicine is the subspecialty of the great complex of medicine, which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of all internal organs - without surgery. Internal medicine therefore deals with the structure, function and diseases of all organ systems. It can therefore be considered a universal link between all medical disciplines.

It is therefore also clear that the field of internal medicine is huge. As the central discipline of medicine itself, it offers specialists in internal medicine - i.e. internists - a wide range of possibilities for specialization. These include the vascular systems, i.e. angiology, topics such as metabolism and hormones (endocrinology and diabetology) and all digestive organs - i.e. the complete gastroenterology and hepatology.

But this is by no means all that specialists in internal medicine can focus on. In diagnostics and non-operative treatment there are other internal organs they can specialize in. All cardiovascular diseases fall into this field, i.e. cardiology. Other areas include the kidney with the urinary tract (nephrology), the respiratory organs (pneumology), the skeleton and the connective tissue.

But this is still not all. Internists can also gain additional qualifications - and become experts in addiction medicine or tropical medicine. Infectiology, i.e. the study of infections and infectious diseases, also offers an opportunity for specialization.

Article overview

Internal organs - Further information

Information about internal organs

The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the intake, reduction, transport and resorption of food. This tract consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and intestines as well as the attached organs liver, gall bladder and pancreas.

Experts for internal organs

Common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are inflammatory diseases of the intestines such as Crohn’s disease, cancers such as stomach cancer, intestinal cancer or liver cancer, stomach diseases such as stomach ulcers, liver diseases such as hepatitis or liver cirrhosis as well as rectal diseases such as hemorrhoids.

Diseases of internal organs

The medical field of gastroenterology, a subspecialty of internal medicine, attends to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Within the field of gastroenterology, there are different subspecialties such as proctology which attends to the treatment of rectal diseases and hepatology which is specialized in the treatment of liver diseases.

Dietary-related disorders and diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract can be treated conservatively, e.g. within the field of nutrition medicine, or surgical within the field of visceral or bariatric surgery. Visceral surgery attends to the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the abdominal organs while bariatric surgery attends to the surgical treatment of morbid obesity which cannot be treated conservatively.

The most important diagnostic and treatment methods in gastroenterology are endoscopic diagnostics such as gastroscopy or colonoscopy as well as sonography of stomach, intestines, liver and kidneys.


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